The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the correlational method as a means for examining the relationship between functions of the left and right hemispheres. I will compare the performance of people with intact brains with the performance of so-called split-brain patients. In many ways, the brains of these two groups are very similar. 1 a. The location of the brainstem in the normal brain is where the brain connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. The functions of the brainstem control the flow of neurons messaging between the brain and the body. Also, the brainstem controls the breathing, swallowing, heartbeat, and consciousness. There are no differences between the function of the normal brainstem and that of the split-brain brainstem. 1 b. The hippocampus is located in the limbic system of the normal brain, which links to conscious memory. The function of the hippocampus is used to process memory of facts and event. Football players who get concussions may have shrunken hippocampus and poor memory due to concussions. There are no differences in the anatomy of the normal hippocampus and the anatomy of the anatomy of the split-brain hippocampus. 1 c. The corpus callosum is located near the center of the brain, it is a large band of neural fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres. It looks like a neural bridge between the two hemispheres. The function of the corpus callosum in the normal brain is to transmit messages between the two hemispheres. The differences between the anatomy of a normal corpus callosum and that of the split-brain corpus callosum is that in the split-brain corpus callosum is severed, this damages the neural bridge of networks between the two hemispheres. The normal corpus callosum where surgeons have operated which seizures are all gone result with split brains reacted normal, but their personality and intelligence were not affected. Therefore, there is a difference is that the normal brain has the corpus callosum and the split brain does not. (CORRECTED) 1 d. The cerebral cortex of the normal brain is located on the cerebrum’s outer layer. It is a thin layer of interconnected neural cells on the four lobes, which make up the wrinkles on the brain. The function of the cerebral cortex of the normal brain is the four lobes frontal (speaking, muscle movement, and making judgements), parietal (sensory input), occipital (information from visual), and the temporal (receiving auditory information). The difference between the function of the normal cerebral cortex and that of the split-brain cerebral cortex is that the split-brain cerebral cortex is severed which means that their brain would not function becoming paralyzed or speechless. (NEEDS TO BE CHECKED)
The split-brain patient provides scientists with a window into the normal functions of the brain. 2 a. Patient’s with split brains suffers from epileptic seizures. Scientists wondered if they could sever the corpus callosum to stop their suffering of epileptic seizures. This technique would cause the two hemispheres to stop transmitting messages to between the two hemispheres, which stops the seizures from spreading one hemisphere to the other. 2 b. This would be the experiment where the word “HE•ART” was shown to the patients with a split brain. As the patient sees the word “HE” appears on their left visual field but transmits to the right hemisphere, vice versa with the word “ART” they would see it with their right visual field but then it would transmit to their left hemisphere. Then patients were asked and point out what they see, patients said “ART” compared to what they pointed at “HE”. The patient’s inability to say the word “HE” but not “ART” demonstrates that language function is lateralized to left hemisphere. 2 c. The results of with split-brain patients can be used to understand laterality in the general population by showing the split-brain which functions are lateralized, the left and the right hemisphere. As shown in the “HE•ART” test we figured out that the left hemisphere is used for language function and the right hemisphere is used for pointing what they see.
Cognitive tests performed on split-brain patients have identified a division of labor between hemispheres. It is conceivable that functions handled by the different hemispheres will show a strong relationship in the general population, but not in split-brain patients. 3 a. The four brain functions that are lateralized to the left hemisphere are writing, speaking, arithmetic reading, and understanding. The four functions lateralized to the right hemisphere are making inferences, proper language usage, understand our self-awareness, and expressing emotions. 3 b Cognitive tests performed on split-brain patients have identified a division of labor between hemispheres. It is conceivable that functions handled by the different hemispheres will show a strong relationship in the general population, but not in split-brain patients. (JUST COPY AND PASTE THE FIRST TWO SENTENCES) 3 c. I will use the correlational method to evaluate my hypothesis by looking at the relationship between the two variables (normal brain and split-brain). I will further evaluate if my hypothesis is correct by seeing the correlation between the two variables. My prediction of the normal brain will show strong correlations whereas, the split brain will show weak correlations. (CORRECTED)
Data were collected from a group of split-brain patients and a group from the general population to test the hypothesis using the correlational method. Each group completed three tasks shown previously to be lateralized: (1) a vocabulary test, (2) a logical reasoning task, and (3) a face recognition task. 4 a. In the left hemisphere the vocabulary test and the logical reasoning task is lateralized. In the right hemisphere the face recognition task is lateralized. 4 b. My predictions about correlations among the three tasks in each group if the hypothesis is correct then there will be a positive correlation with all the tests with intact brains. As for the split-brain there will only be a high correlation between the vocabulary test and logical reasoning task. The rest of the tests for the split brain will be a negative correlation.