The following research paper is about a well-developed country from the European continent called the Netherlands. This research paper will discuss the type of climate, type of vegetation, various types of landforms and mineral resources found in that particular place. The Netherlands is a well-developed country in the past history for all the other European countries. This research paper will also discuss the country’s history, the animals found and how the Netherlands has come to be. The discussion is basically on Amsterdam and Rotterdam the two major cities of Netherlands.
According to Microsoft Encarta 2009, Netherlands is a small country in north Western Europe that faces the North Sea. The Netherlands is often called Holland, but Holland is really the name of only the north western part of the country. The Dutch have a saying that “God created the world, but the Dutch created Holland.” About half the land in the Netherlands lies at or below sea level. Much of this land has been reclaimed from the sea. The Dutch built dikes around swampy or flooded land and then pumped the water out. The pumping was originally done with windmills, but today electric pumps are used. The land is mostly loam soil which resulted in them having fewer natural resources and not much agricultural activities going about. However, the Dutch people have struggled against these odds and have made The Netherlands as one of the wealthiest countries in the world. Several major rivers of Europe flow through The Netherlands and into the sea. These rivers and the country’s location on the North Sea have contributed towards making the country as a great trading nation.
The Netherlands, as its name suggests, is a low-lying country. About half of the country’s area lies no more than 1 meter (3 feet) above sea level, and a quarter of this land is below sea level. Dikes, canals, dams, sluices, and windmills characterize much of the landscape of The Netherlands. They are part of a water drainage system that has enabled the Dutch to increase their country’s land area by almost one fifth. More importantly, without constant drainage and the protection of dunes along the coast, almost half of The Netherlands would be inundated—mainly by the sea, but also by the many rivers which crosses it (Redmond, WA. Microsoft Encarta 2009).
Farther to the east, the land lies slightly higher and is flat to gentle rolling. Most of the land is devoted to agriculture. The total area of The Netherlands is slightly larger than the states of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island combined. The country extends 120 miles (193km) at its widest point from east to west, and the greatest distance measured is 190 miles (306 km) from north to south. The Netherlands is bounded on the east by Germany, on the south by Belgium, and on the north and west by the North Sea. Across the North Sea lies the east coast of Great Britain (Mayne. 1964).
The 17th century is considered the Golden Age in Dutch history. People of Dutch experience great booming in their economy and started to live a high standard of living with luxuries. The Kingdom of The Netherlands was established in 1815 it include the two low countries.
Belgium revolted in 1830 and became independent, and Luxembourg became fully separate from The Netherlands in 1890. The Kingdom of The Netherlands today includes, besides the Netherlands proper, the Netherlands Antilles and the island of Aruba. Netherlands is the most densely populated countries in the European continent as well as the all world. More than 90 per cent of its people live in urban areas (cities and towns) (Mayne, R.1964).
Netherland has made major contributions to art, literature, and science compared to other European countries. Amsterdam is located in North-Holland Province, on the IJ (an arm of the Ijsselmeer), near The Hague. It is the commercial, financial, and cultural centre of The Netherlands, as well as the country’s official capital. However, the real centre of national government is in The Hague. Amsterdam is remarkably a flat city. Most of the metropolis rests on a foundation of piles driven through peat and sand to a firm substratum of clay (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/theNetherlands ).
More than 160 canals divide the city into about 90 islands, which are joined by more than 1,000 bridges. Many canals are a famed attraction for visitors, as there are thousands of the city’s historic buildings and homes, world-class museums, and tolerant social attitudes. Amsterdam is known for its artistic heritage, elaborate canal system and narrow houses with gabled veranda, legacies of the city’s 17- century Golden Age. Cycling is popular in the city’s character and there are numerous bike paths (Redmon, WA. Microsoft Encarta 2009).
Rotterdam, in South Holland Province, found in the north western part of the country, is a port on the river Maas, near The Hague. Rotterdam is one of the major seaports of the world. It is directly linked with the commercially important Rhine River and is the principal centre of overseas trade for the Netherlands and for the heavily industrialized Ruhr district of Germany. Its maritime museums and vintage ship exhibit’s farce the city’s sea history. After being almost completely reconstructed following WWII, the city is now known for bold, modern architecture (Mayne, R.1964).
Though the land is small, the people of Netherlands have great pride in their long battle against the sea. More than two fifth of the country’s land was once covered by the sea or by lakes or swamps. The Dutch created this land by pumping out water. These drained areas called polders, became some of the richest farmlands of the Netherlands (Redmon, WA. Microsoft Encarta 2009).
As researched, the country is mostly covered by water (sea) and few areas of the land are covered by grassland and mountain. North Sea flows in between the two cities of the Netherlands which the country is mostly valley type. By far, most of the land was covered by water and is still covered by water today; the Dutch create dams and dikes to drain out the water to make the place dry for agriculture and livestock and also for commercial buildings