Olivia Greenaway Public Services Level 3 September 2018 What is Citizenship

Olivia Greenaway Public Services Level 3 September 2018
What is Citizenship?
Citizenship is when someone is a member or resident of a country so therefore they have rights because of it. A citizen owes allegiance to their country and in return they are entitled to its protection and freedom, along with the rights, privileges and duties of being a citizen. A legal citizen of the United Kingdom must either be born in the UK, have British parents or have legally applied / registered.
The public services view citizenship as helpful as the citizens help tackle crime by being witnesses, reporting crime and actively doing something helps the police convict and get justice for crimes done. Also, citizens who help the local community like running clubs and youths and getting them involved in productive activities keeps them off the streets meaning there is less chance of crime.

How to apply for a citizenship?
There are two ways to apply for a British citizenship; registration or naturalisation.
To become a citizen through naturalisation, you must be:
At least 18 years old
Of good character (No serious criminal records or immigration offences)
Continue to live in the UK
Pass tests which demonstrate knowledge of English Language and life in the UK.

The applicant should have:
Lived in the UK for at least 5 years – with no more that 450 days spent abroad
Had permanent residence status for at least the past 12 months (EEA Citizens)
Had settlement / indefinite leave to remain in the UK for the past 12 months (Non-EEA Citizens)
What are the benefits of a citizenship?
Having a citizenship gives you the right to permanently live in the UK, this gives you the opportunity to open a bank account, purchase property, work and marry in the UK.

You are also entitled to free medical care, no work restrictions, a stable society and economy and the right to vote.

Diversity and Equality.

Diversity literally means difference, it is taking account of the differences between people and groups of people and placing a positive value on those differences by recognising, respecting and valuing them. Not all differences are visible, there are a variety of visible and non-visible differences. For example; Skin colour, hair colour, sexuality, gender, religion, disabilities and appearance. Diversity in society should be valued and not discriminated against. One way in which organisations have responded to the issue of diversity has been the development of flexibility in work and services. For example, an employer may allow an employee to work a flexible working pattern for child care arrangements.

What is Equality?
Equality is about ensuring every individual has an equal opportunity to make the most of their lives and talents. No one should have poorer life chances because of the way they were born, where they are from, what they believe, or whether they have a disability. Equality is not just about treating everyone the same, it is about treating everybody with respect. So, this could mean putting something in place to fit another person’s needs. For example, if someone is blind/ partially blind it may involve having screen readers on computers or removing certain obstacles. No matter what may be different about a person, whether they have a disability, a different sexual orientation, gender, appearance or religious beliefs, they should be treated with the same respect as everybody else.

There are many legislations which regulate equality, diversity and inclusion such as the Human Rights act 1998, the Data Protection act 1984 and the Equality act 2010.

Why is Diversity and Equality important?
Diversity and equality are becoming increasingly more important in many aspects of our lives for a many reasons. We live in a very diverse society which is constantly increasing, we need to be able to respond appropriately to this diversity. Every workplace should ensure that colleagues, staff and students are valued, motivated and treated fairly. Lastly, we have an equality and human rights legal framework and we need to ensure we work within this and avoid discrimination.

All public service organisations must have a range of policies that they follow to ensure they are upholding the highest standards in respecting equality and diversity.
•Anti- discrimination policies
•Equal opportunities policies
•Recording and monitoring of equal opportunities data and complaints.

Within the public services, diversity and equality is a very important thing, they also stand as an example to the community. For example, in the police force they have a range of individuals of different races, cultures, beliefs and appearances. If the public see a service without variety, it could have an impact on trust and legitimacy of the service.

right1261745Prejudice – An unfair and unreasonable opinion or feeling.

00Prejudice – An unfair and unreasonable opinion or feeling.

right595327Homophobia – A strong dislike of homosexual people.

00Homophobia – A strong dislike of homosexual people.

Terminologies:
center2052237Multiculturism – The presence and support of several cultural and ethnic groups within society.

00Multiculturism – The presence and support of several cultural and ethnic groups within society.

right1653154Disability – An illness, injury or condition in which could make daily activities more difficult.

00Disability – An illness, injury or condition in which could make daily activities more difficult.

left1609394Heterosexist – discrimination by heterosexuals against heterosexuals about sexual orientation.

00Heterosexist – discrimination by heterosexuals against heterosexuals about sexual orientation.

left980054Sexism – Pre-justice, stereotyping or discrimination on the basis of gender.

00Sexism – Pre-justice, stereotyping or discrimination on the basis of gender.

center183267Institutional Racism- A form of racism that takes place in social and political institutions.

00Institutional Racism- A form of racism that takes place in social and political institutions.

left175730Ethnocentricity – The belief that your own cultural or ethnic group is better than any other.

00Ethnocentricity – The belief that your own cultural or ethnic group is better than any other.

right1854283Victimisation – Treating someone badly because they have done a ‘protected act’.

00Victimisation – Treating someone badly because they have done a ‘protected act’.

3502660538922Indirect discrimination – When an organisations practices, policies or procedures have the effect of disadvantaging who share certain characteristics.

020000Indirect discrimination – When an organisations practices, policies or procedures have the effect of disadvantaging who share certain characteristics.

left2642898Harassment- Behaviour appearing to be intimidation or threatening.
00Harassment- Behaviour appearing to be intimidation or threatening.
left3744789Equality – Everyone receiving the same respect and treatment no matter their differences.

00Equality – Everyone receiving the same respect and treatment no matter their differences.

right3488027Direct discrimination – this could include dismissing someone because of a characteristic, deciding not to employ them or denying them a promotion.

4000020000Direct discrimination – this could include dismissing someone because of a characteristic, deciding not to employ them or denying them a promotion.

left1566683Racism – Believing that some races are better than others and treating people differently or discriminating against them because of this.

00Racism – Believing that some races are better than others and treating people differently or discriminating against them because of this.

left615840Equal Opportunities – Giving everyone the same opportunities in employment, pay and promotion.

400000Equal Opportunities – Giving everyone the same opportunities in employment, pay and promotion.

Racism
Racism is a prejudice, discrimination or hatred directed at someone of a different race or belief, or due to their colour, ethnicity, race or national origin. There are many forms of racism and it can happen in many places. Although racism is often associated with acts of abuse or harassment, it doesn’t have to include violence. Racial name calling and ‘jokes’ or if someone is excluded form a certain activity or group due to where they come from is also racism. Not all racism is obvious. Many people experience racism, for example the ‘Challenging Racism Project’ has found that 20% of Australians surveyed had experienced racial discrimination in the form of race hate talk an about 5% had been attacked because of their race.

Sexism
This is discrimination just because of someone’s gender. For example, some women and men are offered different rates of pay for the same job. Another example could be not hiring a woman for a typical male job role because they think she won’t be fit for it just based on gender.

Harassment
Harassment can be in the form of spoken or written words, threats or abuse, offensive emails/ tweets/ comments on social networking sites, physical behaviour such as physical gestures or facial expressions or jokes/ teasing and ‘pranks’. For example, if a work manager is verbally abusive towards you because you have a certain religion, or makes jokes to other colleges about your religion, this is a form of harassment. Harassment can be related to age, gender, disability, sexual orientation, race and many other things.
Homophobia
People who are homophobic are typically uncomfortable or have a strong hate against anyone who is lesbian, gay or bisexual. The main reason for this is misunderstanding, however some people’s religious beliefs are against it. Homophobic bullying is the most frequent form of bullying after name calling. According to Stone wall’s School report, 96% of gay pupils hear homophobic remarks.

Concepts associated with Diversity:
Integration – Integration is when a community is mixed, for example a society with lots of different religions, cultures and races. An example of integration would be people attending a school or college. This is because the school integrate the students, so they will learn about treating people equally. Years ago, schools used to be explicitly segregated by race. There were white schools and black schools, and no matter where children lived, their school attendance was determined by their race. Years later, on the 17th May 1954, the US Supreme court declared that segregated schools were unconstitutional. However, some places to this day such as states in America, remain segregated.

Tolerance – Tolerance is having the ability and the willingness to recognise, accept and respect other people’s beliefs and cultures. In the UK, people can dress how they would like and believe in any religion, this is called tolerance. It is also to accept other people’s opinions and beliefs which may differ towards yours, Treat other people as you would wish to be treated by them: as long as what they do does not impact you (make your life more difficult, make your beliefs illegal, harm you or your family, take your property, make education more difficult or inadequate, etc) then what they do in their private spaces and on their own time is none of your business.

Multiculturism – Multiculturism is a range of different cultural or racial groups that live in a community and they all have equal rights and opportunities. The community gains understandings of different religions or cultures due to multiculturism. It introduces us to new foods, clothes and many other things in the community.

Positive Action- Positive action is a range of measures allowed under the equality act 2010 which can take place to encourage and train people to help them overcome any disadvantages they may have when competing with others.