Innumerable thanks to Almighty, All gracious, All compassionate “Allah”. Who blessed me with intelligence and knowledge and working capability to complete this research paper . I offer my countless salutations upon the “HOLLY PROPHET MUHAMMAD” (Peace Be Upon Him) the entire source of guidance for humanity as a whole forever.
I am highly thankful to Lt Junaid Aman Mahsud and Lt Islam Mahsud for their kind guidance, valuable suggestions and advices. Without their efforts this research paper would not have got this shape.
No words exist in the world to pay tribute to my parents for giving so much love, prayers, pursuit higher ideas of life and confidence to face the ups and down of my life.
OTTOMAN EMPIRE – ITS CAUSES OF COLLAPSE
Ottoman Empire created by Turkish tribes Osaman I that grew to be one of the most powerful states in the world during the 15th and 16th centuries. The Ottoman era spanned more than 600 years and came to an end only in 1922 when it was replaced by the Turkish Republic and various successor states in southeastern Europe and the Middle East. At its height the empire encompassed most of southeastern Europe to the gates of Vienna including present-day Hungary the Balkan region Greece and parts of Ukraine portions of the Middle East now occupied by Iraq Syria Israel and Egypt North Africa as far west as Algeria and large parts of the Arabian Peninsula. The term Ottoman is a dynastic appellation derived from Osman I (Arabic Uthman) the nomadic Turkmen chief who founded the empire.
Actually the decline of the Ottoman Empire triggered by many factors including Qualities Of Kingship, The moribund nature of government, rise of Nationalism, military defeats, European intervention in their area, rebellions and corruption. in the late of nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire was labeled by other countries as the ‘Sick Man of Europe’. The empire was abolished by the Government of the Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara in November 1922 following the Turkish War of Independence (1919–23).
The Ottoman Empire was the greatest and one of many empires that still leads influence and remembrance throughout history. Empire was recognized by many scientists and researchers as the greatest caliphate that has formed a great civilization. It had many great leaders and each brought great changes through their reigns in the empire. The Ottoman Empire was based on multi ethnicity and multi religion. With the concept of millet (community religious) each religious believer can coexist peaceful and fraternal. Ottoman Empire occupied a very special position in Islamic history as well. Empire was well famous for its strengthen Military. Unfortunately the Ottoman Caliphate established since 1453 began to experience setbacks since the century 18th. The defeat of the Ottoman Turks in various wars, intervention Europe, as well as the economic down turn are causes. Scholars and Historians have proclaimed the nature of Kingship, The moribund nature of government, rise of Nationalism, military defeats, European intervention in their area, rebellions and corruption have triggered the decline of Ottoman empire and by the 19th century AD the Ottoman Empire was dubbed many observers as the ‘Sick Man of Europe’. In the early 20th century AD the Caliphate The Ottoman Turks got worse and experienced the peak of their fall along with the birth of the concept of the nation state and the influence of modernization.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Ser Contents Page No
Part – I
1. Introduction 7
2. Aim 7
Part – II
3. The Rise of the Ottoman Empire 7
a. Osman I 7
b. Mahmud The Conqurer 8
c. Suleman the Magnificent 8
d. Murad IV 9
Part – III
4. Its Causes of Collapse 9
a. Qualities Of Kingship 9
b. The moribund nature of the Ottoman government 10
1) Sultanate 10
2) Bureaucracy 11
3) Military 11
c. Rise of Nationalism 12
d. Intrigues Of The Princes Mother 12
1) Nurbanu Sultan 13
2) Safiye Sultan 13
3) Kosam Sultan 13
4) Hurem Sultan 14
e. Ottoman Naval Defeat At Lepanto 14
f. Modernization of education in the Ottoman Empire 15
g. Janissary army 15
h. Ottoman Russian War 16
i. The Ottoman empire’s inability to industrialize 17
5. Analysis 20
a. Kingship 20
b. Palace Intrigues 20
c. Government Nature 20
d. Military Defeats 20
6. Conclusion 21
7. Bibliography 22
OTTOMAN EMPIRE – ITS CAUSES OF COLLAPSE
1. Introduction Ottoman Empire which was stretched on Southeast Europe parts of Central Europe, Western Asia parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa containing 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. The Ottoman Empire has ruled their society from 1291-1922 and survived for almost 600 years. The golden age of the Ottoman Empire seems to be decline in the eighteenth century.
The main problems which triggered to its decline were the Different Nature Kingship, moribund nature of Govt, rise of nationalism, Intrigues of princes mother in sultan policies, Different Military Defeats , Janissary Army Rebellions and last but not the least Ottoman Empire inability to industrialize. In the late of nineteenth century the Ottoman Empire was labeled by other countries as the ‘Sick Man of Europe’ Indeed at the same time many of Young Turks also want to reform their country to become modern nation state as a respond to the rapid influence of modernization around the world which led them to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.
2. Aim. This study is aimed at the deliberate analysis of Ottoman Empire – Its causes of collapse.
3. The Rise Of The Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern by the Turkish tribal leader OsmanI.
a. Osman I. Osman I’s real conquests followed the collapse of Seljuk authority when he was able to occupy the fortresses of Eskisehir and Karacahisar. Then he captured the first significant city in his territories, Yenisehir which became the Ottoman capital.
In 1302 after soundly defeating a Byzantine force near Nicaea Osman began settling his forces closer to Byzantine controlled areas.
Osman I spent the remainder of his reign expanding his control in two directions north along the course of the Sakarya River and southwest towards the Sea of Marmora achieving his objectives by 1308. That same year his followers participated in conquest of the Byzantine city of Ephesus near the Aegean Sea thus capturing the last Byzantine city on the coast although the city became part of the domain of the Emir of Aydin.
Osman’s last campaign was against the city of Bursa and proved to be extremely vital for the Ottomans as the city served as a staging ground against the Byzantines in Constantinople and as a newly adorned capital for Osman’s son Orhan.
The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.
b. Mehmed The Conqueror’s. Mehmed The Conqurer is one of those emperors in Ottoman Empire who have broaden the frontiers of their Empire. During his Regin his conquests are mentioned below.
1) Conquest of Constantinople (1453).
2) Conquest of Serbia (1454–1459).
3) Conquest of Morea (1458–1460).
4) Conquests on the Black Sea coast (1460–1461).
5) Conquest of Bosnia (1463).
6) Conquest of Albania (1466–1478).
7) Conquest of Genoese Crimea.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the regime of Suleiman the Magnificent
c. Suleiman the Magnificent. Suleiman became a prominent monarch of 16th-century Europe presiding over the apex of the Ottoman Empire’s economic, military and political power. Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies in conquering the Christian strongholds of Belgrade and Rhodes as well as most of Hungary before his conquests were checked at the Siege of Vienna in 1529. He annexed much of the Middle East in his conflict with the Safavids and large areas of North Africa as far west as Algeria. Under his rule, the Ottoman fleet dominated the seas from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea and through the Persian Gulf
At the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. Murad IV was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640 known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods.
d. Murad IV.. He was only 11 when he took the throne. Murad IV’s reign is most notable for the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–39) against Persia (today Iran) in which Ottoman forces managed to conquer Azerbaijan occupying Tabriz, Hamadan, and capturing Baghdad in 1638 of which the outcome would permanently part the Caucasus between the two Imperial powers for around two centuries, while it also roughly laid the foundation for the current Turkey–Iran–Iraq borders. Murad IV tried to quell the corruption that had grown during the reigns of previous Sultans, and that had not been checked while his mother was ruling through proxy. Murad IV also banned alcohol, tobacco, and coffee in Istanbul. He ordered execution for breaking this ban.
Thus over the course of the 19th century the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organized despite suffering further territorial losses especially in the Balkans where a number of new states emerged.
The Empire’s defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.
4. Its Causes Of Collapse
a. Qualities Of Kingship. It has been argued that the qualities of kingship of the Ottoman Empire after Suleman’s death deteriorated rapidly. Although some of the sultans after Sultan Suleman such as Selim, Mehmed III, and Murad IV have capabilities to conquer and expand the Ottoman lands like Suleman none of them fine warriors and wise rulers in the old tradition. Ironically no Sultan acceding later than 1595 who had any experience in military service before they became the ruler. In this case Murad IV who served as Sultan between 1623 and 1640 was an exception. This is because he showed ability as a military commander in the Caucus and Mesopotamia. Unfortunately, he was forced to spend much of his concentration for reasserting over rebellious soldier in the provinces under the Ottoman Empire. Indeed, although he has similar capability with Suleman as an able Sultan, he could not continue his programs because he died at the early age of thirty one.
b. The moribund nature of the Ottoman government. Moribund nature of the Ottoman government directly caused the big impact for their people. Besides that the changes policies which were issued by the empire often obliged people to follow it.
1) Sultanate. The Sultanate was a Government where emperor enjoyed his full power and the sultan would chose a capable successor from his many sons The fundamental qualification for the Sultanate was the individual’s worthiness to fill the position. The Ottomans believed that simple succession proved that the Sultan was worthy of the crown however the Sultan may grow old feeble or corrupt and thus lose his worthiness to serve as Sultan. . Over periods of time the sultanate weakened gradually. The weakening of the empire began late in the ruling of Suleman the Magnificent. Although he was the height of the Golden Age Sul