https://www.pennlive.com/news/2018/08/paint-covered_streets_cars_rep.html(date accessed: 24/09/2018

Introduction
Quality Assurance is the maintenance of a desired level of quality in a service or product, especially paying attention to the manufacturing process. Our companies name is Beacon Paint. We were approached by a client to manufacture a suitable paint, finishing coat for her house’s exterior walls. The Paint that needs to be produced needs to be a water-based paint and should not whether under harsh environmental conditions. This report is based on the quality assurance of the manufacturing of the paint. The standard that will be used is ISO 9001. The following topics will be discussed in this report: reference
1. Quality management principles
• Customer Focus (Kaylin Pearce 217398553)
• Continuous improvement (Courtney Ray 215332415)
• Process approach (Faheema Moosa 217495850)
• Waste Reduction Culture (Celeste Lewis 217312470)
• Evidence- based decision making (Celine Brauns 215207033)
• Relationship management (Deneil Ownhouse 217674747)
2. Quality Assurance and Quality Control
• Quality Assurance (Cuwan Le Roux 217539386)
• Quality Control (Cassandra Zimdahl 217471013)
3. Quality control and Assurance control mechanisms in the organization
• Implementation of GLP and SOP ( Kaylin Pearce 217398553)
• Training (Cassandra Zimdahl 217471013)
Customer Focus
Quality Assurance is about making sure the products of this company produce quality paints that are up to standard. Customer Focus is about determining whose opinion really matters when it comes to the quality of the paints.
There are two types of customers when it comes to running a successful company; they are external and internal customers. The internal customers are the people within the company such as the colleagues you work with daily. The external customers are the people or enterprise that purchases your paint either directly or through another company. The company should find ways of maintaining the standards of the quality assurance program, and the only way this is possible if the key performance indicators (KPI’s) are used to guide the efforts.

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KPI’s for physical products are:
• Reliability
• Aesthetics
• Adaptability
• Usability
• Functionality
• Appropriateness
Customer focus of ISO 9001:2015 (Reference: https://www.qualitydigest.com/inside/customer-care-column/040516-how-iso-90012015-helps-improve-customer-relationships.html)
The aim of ISO 9001:2015 is to enable businesses to satisfy their customers effectively. ISO 9001:2015 deals with “customer satisfaction” directly. It states that the “organization shall monitor customers’ perceptions of the degree to which their needs and expectations have been fulfilled.”
The standard goes on to list examples of how this information can be obtained, example customer feedback and surveys. ISO 9001:2015 is more focused on customer satisfaction as well as improving and maintaining client relationships than any previous version. Ensuring that business leaders take extra responsibility can only be good news for your customers

Continuous improvement
Continuous improvement (CI) or continuous improvement process (CIP) is defined as the as the ongoing effort to improve products, services, or process. The feedback from this process and even from customers is evaluated against the organisational goals. Decisions are made to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and flexibility of the process. From this statement, we can tell that continuous improvement does not just need to be done on the physical product, but also the production and the working environment in which the product is manufactured.
With the product improvement of paint, many solutions have been found to prevent skinning, settling and decrease the drying time of paint. Chemical solutions have been found to thicken, harden and neutralize the paint. Nevertheless the improvements can always be made, maybe not to the actual product but certain production aspects. Using a High-speed dispenser mixer (HSD), HSD is a piece of equipment that is primarily used for premixing enamels before passing it through sand mills, sand mill, dispersion of water-based emulsions and finished paint blending. HSD’s ensures efficient premixing, grinding, and homogeneous mixtures.
The CI is used in ISO 14000 and can be understood to be referring to the ongoing series of small or large scale improvements. ISO 14000 is a family of standards related to the environmental management that exists to help organizations: Minimizing how their processes negatively affect the environment and how to comply with applicable law, regulations, and environmental oriented requirements.
This would mean that there would be special ways to discard waste products. As time has change, people are more considerate about the environment. Since paint involves a lot of chemicals, especially volatiles, organic solvents, and even some lead paints. This is why in the factory of production, methods of CI has been put into place to put safety measures in place for the workers present.
• Wearing safety google, gloves and masks with filters.
• The interior walls of the factory contain ventilators.
• Labels are printed with instructions on how to handle the paint is clearly printed.
• Workers follow the clearly printed labels.
• Paints should be stored far away from sources of ignition like furnaces, gas ranges and or heaters.
Studies have shown that unwanted paint has become the largest household hazardous waste, up to 68 million gallons a year. This figure does not take into consideration the unwanted paint produced commercially due to incorrect tints or bad quality. Engineers, in the University of New Jersey, has developed a process of recycling these unwanted paints by blending it with common plastics like High-density polyethylene, or polymethyl methacrylate. The paint gets recycled while the plastic becomes more flexible and tough, while maintaining their stiffness and strength. These plastics can also be used to make containers while hold the paint, thus eliminating metal cans.

Process Approach
The main aim of a process approach is to enhance the organisation’s effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its’ defined objectives.
The ISO 9001:2008 defines the process approach as; “The application of a system of processes within an organisation, together with the identification and interaction of these processors, and their management to produce the desired outcome, can be referred to as the “process approach”.
Benefits of a process approach include transparency of operations, provide consistent and predictable results and ensure the final outcome meets the specification of the organisation.
The management process involves:
– Strategic planning
– Establishing policies
– Setting objectives
– Ensuring communication
– Ensuring availability of resources
Therefore, the management system must be linked to the various processes to ensure the system is running smoothly and the money used to operate the laboratory is being spent wisely.

Figure 1: Example of a process approach system
Figure 1 above indicates the processors and interactions involved within a process approach system. Interaction between processes is the number one key factor in developing an output efficiently, accurately and consistently.

Resource process includes the processes that provide resources that meet the organisations quality objectives. Therefore, the resource process has constant interaction with the process design, planning, production, analysis and management to ensure the correct materials are constantly being supplied.
Resource process includes:
– Human resources
– Infrastructure
– Work environment
– Information
– Natural resources
– Financial resources
Measurement, analysis and improvement process
Analysis involves:
– Measuring
– Monitoring
– Auditing
– Failure rates
– Process cost
Once the product is produced it is analysed within the laboratory. If the product does not meet all the specifications, the results are traced back to the resource process and the product design and planning to improve the accuracy and efficiency.
Aspects that may also need improvement
– Communication
– Training
– Management involvement

An example of the process approach within a paint industry:
After a batch of paint was produced it was sent to the labs for analysis, where various tests were performed such as the pH, texture, viscosity and colour of the paint.
After the tests were performed, we found that the paint was not meeting pH specification. Therefore, we traced it back to the initial process where we found an error in the production process. To improve the results the management altered strategic planning by allowing the design process to be altered to produce results that meet the specifications.

Waste Reduction Culture
Reducing waste in the paint industry is important. Paint is very expensive so reducing their waste helps reduce the amount of money spent on paint and help you save significantly. In most cases waste reduction in the pint industry also reduces the compliance costs, the worker health risks, lowers insurance and labour costs as well as improve community relation and reduce air emissions.
1. Manage the inventory:
• Purchase paint in bulk to reduce the number of cans being disposed.
• Replenish your inventory as you must use the products.
• Reduce the amount of different coating types and colours being used.
• Reuse out of date primer
• Return the unused paint to the manufacturer if it has not yet expired.
• Buy paint that will not produce dangerous waste when it is being used.
2. Solvents:
• Equipment used should be cleaned immediately before it builds up ad hardens’
• Flushing and rinsing solvents can be reused as thinners
• Dispose solvents when they lose their cleaning effectiveness, not when they’re dirty.
• Keep the solvents in tightly closed containers to prevent evaporation.
3. Paint application methods:
Transfer efficiency in the measurement of the percentage of paint that ends up on the target, opposed to that amount of paint that was lost. The goal is always to increase the efficiency because then less coating will be wasted. Increasing the transfer efficiency from 30% to 65% reduces the amount of paint used by 50%.
4. Coatings:
• Mix and always use the least amount of coating possible.
• High solids and water-based paints reduce toxic air emissions.
• Thin coatings by using heat rather than using solvents.
5. Paint waste disposal:
• Do not evaporate paint or solvents used.
• Do not pour them on the ground or put into a septic system.
• Do not send paint, solvents or paint washer wo sewers without authorization.
• Send paints and thinners that are no longer reusable to be recycled.
Evidence- based decision making
These are decisions based on the analysis of data and information to produce desired result.

Analysis for performance, durability and weathering conditions.
If the paint applied to a substrate is not of good quality, it will have a negative effect on the performance and durability of the products that the paint has been applied on. To ensure the quality of the paint for performance, durability and weathering conditions a variety of testing machines and methods are used namely;
Environmental test chambers/ Humidity chambers (artificial weathering devices)
These Chambers monitor the behaviour of the coatings with the change of environmental factors; they provide the best assessment of the paint caused by the effect of various weather conditions. The instrument creates actual environmental conditions such as high temperature, humidity or moisture. These instruments have been used to classify pigments in different categories; all conditions of exposure pigments are stable, pigments that are stable in average conditions but can fade in strong light and pigments that are unstable and only relied on for short period or can be protected from light and air. The chemist must choose pigments and mediums that are best suited for those conditions.
Salt spray testing
This is a standardized corrosion test method used to monitor corrosion resistance of materials and coatings. A surface coating provides a degree of corrosion protection to the metal
Volatile/semi-volatile-organic compound testing
This ensures that the volatile compounds are at regulated levels, due to the exposure of these volatiles arises a variety of health issues. The detection of these compounds is needed at very low concentrations. Instruments such as HPLC, GC and mass spectroscopy can be used to provide the customers with accurate and correct identification and quantification for low.

Relationship management
Relationship management is a process or strategy in which a business maintains engagement with its suppliers and customers.
At Beacon paints it is extremely important to maintain a good relationship with our customer as well as our suppliers. As a big company we follow certain procedure to improve our relationships in such a way that it is both efficient and as personal as possible. By personal we mean we take our customers and suppliers wants, needs and requirements into deep consideration. In order for us to do so we thus follow the following procedure when building a relationships with our customers and suppliers.
• Firstly we identify our suppliers and customers and what type of interaction and relationship they will have with our organization.
• Then we prioritize them according to there importance. In this step we prioritize them in under short or long term relationships. Although we do this, we still ensure that all our clients and suppliers feel equally important.
• After that we establish a relationship with the specific company or person.
• We then gather information and resources for the production of the product and share this information with the specify parties (clients or suppliers).
• After that we measure the performance and then give feedback on this and obtain ways on how to effectively improve the performance.
• We then use the feedback obtained and apply it.

This specific relationship building procedure is important because the aim of the ISO 9001 standard is to enable the business to satisfy the customer effectively. The standard deals directly with customer satisfactory. In the standards clauses it states that the organization must monitor customer perceptions and the degree at which there needs are met. This is then recorded and forms part of the customer feedback section. The ISO 9001:2015 standard is the one standard that is focused on relationship management and maintaining excellent relationships with everyone, especially clients. There are specific parts in the standard that provides guidance in relationship management. Some of these parts are leadership requirements, performance evaluation, control of external providers and operational control. Leadership requirements makes sure that the organization has leaders that take extra responsibility. An example of this would be the relationship manager annually contacting the business important clients to ask if they are satisfied with the product (paint) and if they have any feedback on how the product can be improved. Performance evaluation ensures that steps are taken to improve the customer satisfaction by improving delivery of goods or services provided. Control of external providers deals with ensuring that the external suppliers provide good services and this helps put the company in a better position to sell improved goods to our own customers. A good operational control helps to gain the customers trust. If the business has an effective planning process, customers are more likely to trust the business and this this will ensure a strong fruitful relationship between the customer and the business.

Representation of how a good relationship influence the company http://2aszhi3llh0x466uws21w6cc-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/definition-customer-relationship-management.png Date: 27/08/2018

Quality Assurance
Like many other industries, many companies in the paint industry are certified uses of ISO 9001. The ISO 900 is a group of standards that states the different parts of quality management. For a company to produce good quality paint to the customer’s specifications and continuously improve its processes it needs to adhere to these standards. The ISO 9001 handles with the quality management principals such as strong customer focus, the motivation and implications of management, process approach and continuous improvement. It also pays attention to the design of the product, development, production and services. The standard offers guidance:
• To improve business performance
• State business policies and objectives
• Measuring and monitoring processes
• Product characteristics
• Highlighting counteractive and precautionary actions
• Boosting improvement of the product

The basic principles stated in ISO 901 are:
1) Customer Focus
This is an important concept and is the focus of any business. When understanding the needs of the customer we can produce a product that the customer is looking for increasing customer satisfaction and loyalty.

2) Leadership
A good leadership team encourages a productive business environment, establishes unity and direction amongst the employees.

3) Involvement of people
The business must strive to include all its workers; this promotes workers to invest them into each project of the business resulting in committed and motivated workers.

4) Process approach to Quality Management
This handles with the effective use of resources, personnel and time to achieve the best results and establish future goals and prioritize objectives to increase effectiveness.

5) Management System Approach
The leadership must be dedicated to the goals of the business this produces consistency, effectiveness and efficiency. This increases confidence with the suppliers and customers.

6) Continual Improvement
The business should be ready to respond when new opportunities arise. Continual improvement of the business processes leads to faster and more efficient development.

7) Factual Approach to Decision Making
Based an analysis and interpretation of data the company can make informed decisions presently and for the future.

8) Supplier Relationships
Good relations with suppliers are beneficial to both business and the supplier to optimize resources and costs. A strong relationship with the supplier promotes quick response to the business needs and customer needs and market changes.

Quality Assurance is the responsibility management from the CEO right down to the project supervisor. Management needs to ensure that the work done is completed to the highest standard. It is vital that the paint is of superior performance and durability so that assets are protected from seasonal weathering and deterioration, therefore Quality Assurance is vital. It also includes reducing the risk of defect and maximizes quality performance and outcomes of the client. In the application of the paint the project supervisor will observer all works and document any corrections or failures that are present, this is then reviewed and rectified.
Some general test methods for paint in include:
• ISO 1518: 1992 – Scratch test
• ISO 2808: 2007 – Determination of film thickness
• ISO2811 – 1: 1997 – Determination of density – Part 1: Pyknometer method
• ISO 2810: 2004 – Natural weathering of coatings – Exposure and assessment

Quality Control
Quality control consists of laboratory procedures to ensure that a manufactured product adheres to a defined set of standards and also to ensure that reliable and accurate analytical results are achieved.
BENEFITS OF USING QC:
• Increase customer loyalty
• Gain new customers from referrals
• Maintain or improve your position in the market
• Improve safety
• Reduce liability risks
• Contribute to overall positive branding of your product
The properties of the paint can be analysed after the production of the paint:
• Ph testing:
A ph meter was used to test the ph of the paint. The ideal range of ph for paint is from ph 8.5-9. The reason why a high ph, must be used in paints is to avoid corrosion of the paint and also since an alkaline environment is comparatively less corrosive than an acid environment.
• Viscosity testing:
The viscosity of the paint determines whether the paint needs to be applied using sprayer, roller or brush etc. This is based on how the customer will use the paint. Viscosity was tested using a Ford Viscosity cup. It is a gravity device that permits the timed flow of a known volume of liquid passing through an orifice located at the bottom. During ideal conditions, this rate of flow would be proportional to the kinematic viscosity (expressed in stokes and centistokes) that is dependent upon the specific gravity of the draining liquid. However, in a simple flow cup, the conditions are seldom ideal in order to make true measurements.
• Texture of paint
The texture of paint was determined by using a texcote roller to apply the paint on a wall in order to check for sagging. Sagging in paint occurs during the application of paint, when the paint that sags leaves a runny or drippy appearance on the surface.
• Colour of paint:
The colour of the paint was determined by using a colorimeter. Colorimeter is an instrument that is used to determine colour and specifying colour. Most commonly used for chemical analysis by comparison of a liquid’s colour with standard colours.
• Toxicity of the paint
The paint was tested for the lead metal. The requirement of the manufactured paint was that it must not contain any lead content. Both inside and outside the home, deteriorated lead-paint becomes trapped inside the soil and household dust. Therefore, this can cause serious health problems to humans. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) will be used to determine whether the paint contains lead. It is an analytical technique used for the detection of chemical elements. It is a type of emission spectroscopy that uses the inductively coupled plasma to produce excited atoms and ions that emit electromagnetic radiation at characteristic wavelength of a particular element. It is a flame technique with a flame temperature in a range from 6000 to 10000 K.

• Gloss / Sheen:
A gloss meter is an instrument which is used to measure specular reflection gloss of a surface. Gloss is determined by projecting a beam of light at a fixed intensity and angle onto a surface and measuring the amount of reflected light at an equal but opposite angle.
The method that will be focused on in this report is the toxicity of the paint by using an Inductively Coupled Plasma atomic emission spectroscopy instrument to test for Lead content.
Sample preparation of paint to be analysed by icp-aes:
A representative sample of 0.5 g of the paint was mixed with 0.5 g of finely ground potassium permanganate. 1.0 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid was added to the mixture while stirring. This resulted in a strong exothermic reaction occurring. Thereafter, the sample was treated with 2 mL concentrated nitric acid. 10 mL of concentrated HCl was added to the sample and it was heated until the reaction was observed to be complete, and it was then filtered. The filter is washed with hot concentrated hydrochloric acid. The filter paper was transferred to a digestion flask and was treated with 5 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid. The sample was brought to volume and was analysed by ICP-AES.

Analysis of paint using ICP-AES:

http://www.rsic.iitb.ac.in/icp-aes.html (26/09/2018)
The sample was introduced to the nebulizer chamber via a peristaltic pump and tygon tubing attached to an automatic sampler. A peristaltic pump was operated by sequentially compressing flexible tubing with evenly spaced and rotating rollers that pull/push the liquid through the system. The sample introduction rate into the plasma was altered by changing the rotation rate of the peristaltic rollers. The sample and Argon gas flows through the small aperture of the nebulizer that creates very small droplets that form mist particles in the nebulizer chamber. Larger sample droplets are removed through a drain, only the small particles travel with the argon to the plasma torch. Evaporation, atomization, and excitations/ionizations occur in the plasma at temperatures reaching 10,000 K. The Argon was also excited and ionized because this gas carries the sample aerosol and confines the location of the plasma to prevent damage to the rest of the instrument. As the excited/ionized atoms leave the hot portion of the plasma, excited valence electrons relax and emit a photon characteristic of the electron transition. This photon is specific to the element .Visible and UV radiation emitted from the sample constituents enters the monochromator through a small slit where the wavelengths are separated by grating(s) before being captured and measured by a wide variety of detectors. The choice and configuration of the monochromators in the instrument is important. A monochromator is used to separate the various emission lines and simultaneously focus individual wavelengths on to a series of slits, with each slit aligned to allow a specific wavelength of radiation to pass to a detector. The standard detector, a photomultiplier tube (PMT) was used to detect the wavelengths from the monochromator. Data from these detectors are processed by a computer because multiple wavelengths are measured in an ICP-AES system at the same time.

Implementation of GLP and SOP
Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) is a set of principles that provides a framework within which laboratory studies are planned, performed, monitored and recorded. The purpose of the Principles of Good Laboratory Practice is to promote the development of test data and provides tools to ensure a sound approach to the management of laboratory studies, including conduct, reporting and archiving.GLP help to define and standardise the planning, performance, recording, reporting, monitoring and archiving processes within paint industries.
GLP importance: Company, staff, facilities and equipment, Test items and systems, Protocols, standard operating procedures (SOPs), raw data, final report and Quality Assurance.
GLP training: Training must be planned and documented. Training systems are SOP-based. The training system has elements of GLP management systems. SOP: Management has the responsibility generating SOPs. The implementation of GLP must be a collaborative effort. Management shouldn’t be directly involved in the day-to-day business. When implementing GLP during training, it is important to clearly distinguish between the term Good Laboratory Practice and general application of “good practices”. The term “Good Laboratory Practice” is not a trade-marked term; any laboratory may say they follow good practices in its daily work.
IMPLEMENTATION OF GLP REQUIREMENTS
Part 1-3 shows the GLP implementation. The assumption is that the laboratory has no GLP systems in place.
Part 1:
1.1 Arrange General GLP training for all staff (Training of 1-2 days).
1.2 Construct an organisational chart.
1.3 Appoint Directors and Quality Assurance staff.
1.4 Prepare formats for personnel document.
1.5 Compile the personnel documents for all staff using.
1.6 Write an SOP, review and revision of organisational charts and personnel documents.
1.7 Responsibilities for the management of the companies SOP. Give definition in an SOP. In small company like ours, the management of SOPs are the responsibility of the QA group.
1.8 Write an SOP for the archiving process.
Part 2:
2.1 Write an SOP for content, layout and format of protocols.
2.2 Train Directors responsibilities in GLP.
2.3 Write an SOP on the workflow (writing, review and approval).
2.4 Put the template protocol to the test by using it in all studies of the type concerned.
2.5 Prepare and write SOP for content, layout and format of reports.
Part 3:
3.1 Find a system to aid the identification of the equipment and instruments. Write an SOP used for the identification of equipment and instruments.
3.2 List all the equipment and instruments used in the laboratory.
3.3 Label all listed equipment/instruments.
3.4 Write an SOP on the equipment logbook.
3.5 Open a logbook for each piece of equipment.
3.6 Decide the method of maintenance for each piece of equipment.
3.7 Decide which maintenance or qualification operations require external contracts.

Training
Competency is defined as the application of knowledge, skills, and behaviours used in performing specific job tasks. Accurate laboratory test results depend on staff to perform a range of procedures that occur throughout the entire examination process. Competency assessment is defined as any system for measuring and documenting personnel competency. The goal of competency assessment is to identify problems with employees’ performance and to correct these issues.
Training is a process to provide and develop knowledge, skills, and behaviours to meet requirements. Retraining is required when competency assessment reveals the need for improving an employee’s knowledge and skills. Cross-training provides an opportunity for staff to acquire skills outside their own discipline. Continuing education is an educational program that brings employees up-to-date in a particular area of knowledge or skills.
Reasons why staff should be trained:
• To achieve good quality practices in the laboratory and produce accurate, reliable, and timely test results
• Help staff achieve personal career goals
• Improve the organization’s capabilities and achievement of quality objectives.
When planning a training or continuing activity, the following needs to be considered:
• Identification of training needs
• design of training
• provision of training
• Evaluation of training results.
The staff can be trained by organizing low cost activities such as watching videos on how analysis should be done , researching a topic on specific analytical methods and presenting findings to colleagues , and by starting case study discussion groups. Interactive self-study programs including e-learning freeware or printed courses can also be used to train the staff. Local resources can also be used to train employees. When organizing an internal continuing education programs, local resources available from the community should be considered. Some of these resources include quality assurance committees, analytical chemists, lab technicians etc. Each of these resources may offer specialized knowledge and experience they can share with laboratory staff. They can be invited to give lectures, lead discussions, and exchange information.

Conclusion
It can be concluded that the paint produced by our company, Beacon paints met the requirements set by ISO 9001 standard as well the customer requirements. The paint produced by the company was specifically made for the purpose of painting exterior wall. The paint was of good quality, as shown in the above report, and can thus be sold to the client.

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