Far Eastern Federal University School of Biomedicine

Far Eastern Federal University
School of Biomedicine.

Biology
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
byHariharan Panchavarnam
CONTENTS
TOC o “1-3″ h z u INTRODUCTION 2
WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 3
STRONG AI & WEAK AI 4
– IS STRONG AI REALLY POSSIBLE? 5
SINGULARITY 6
MY OUTLOOK 7
CONCLUSION 8
REFERENCES 9

INTRODUCTION
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” The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. Once humans develop artificial intelligence, it will take off on its own and redesign itself at an ever increasing rate. Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete and would be superseded. ”
– Stephen Hawking
Philosophers have been trying for over two thousand years to understand and answer to questions of the universe; How does human brain and mind work, and can non humans have minds? These questions are still mystical. From practical point of view, a machine should help humans to make decisions wisely, to search info, and probably there is no point in trying to achieve an illusive goal of machines with artificial intelligence. The views of AI vary from scientist to scientist though, but all had the central dogma that the machine should act and think in a humanly and rational manner. The attribute artificial might cause much different conceptions . It brings up fears of intelligent cyborgs in science fiction novels. It raises the question of the intelligent machine that behaves like a person, showing intelligent behavior.

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left472440WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Intelligence is the faculty of making artificial objects, especially tools to make tools.

– Henry Bergson
(L’ Evolution Creatice)
Many definitions were given by different researchers around the world, to prove their point of view. The automation of activities that we associate with human thinking, activities such as decision making, problem solving, learning was given by Bellman,1978.The study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better by Rich and Knight,1991.The study of mental faculties through the use of computational methods by Charniak and Mcdermott,1985.Luger and Stubblefield included AI into computer science with automation of intelligent behavior.

Artificial intelligence is the intelligence demonstrated by machines. Colloquially, the “artificial intelligence” mimics cognitive functions of human brain. The major goals of AI are
Knowledge reasoning
Planning
Machine learning
Natural language process
Computer vision
Robotics
Artificial general intelligence
The Turing test was made in 1950.The main aspect was to check the machines ability to exhibit intelligent behavior on par to human beings.However the machine passed the test. The test does not check the ability of correct answers to questions, only how closely answers which resembles human ones. Chatterbots are being used commercially over the internet and over E learning.

STRONG AI & WEAK AI
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In strong AI, just like human being, the machine can actually think and perform tasks ,whereas in weak AI , the devices cannot follow these tasks on their own but are made to look intelligent. Strong ones algorithm is stored in computer program, but tasks of weaker ones are manually entered to be performed. The progress is in initial stage for strong AI, but the progress is in advanced stages.

Researchers focus more on Strong AI,whereas engineers who want weak AI to be devolped focus on it.
IS STRONG AI REALLY POSSIBLE?
Its possible, But its very difficult. There are many processes involved in intelligence and some tough and complex engines, and tons of complexity. This is not important to construct though.

However, SAI has been achieved in nature and it can be achieved in machines eventually too. But remember the point that we, humans are not precise machines, which means that we don’t have to develop the perfect AI to be very functional. So, my answer would be perhaps a NO, as if it were possible, we would not be walking around right now. We would be swinging in trees rather. There are some proofs like the Godels incompleteness theorm , which states that are not provable within that system itself. True AI is not logically impossible, but it is utterly implausible .We have no idea how we might begin our engineering, because we have a very little understanding of how our brain and intelligence works.

The success of our technologies depends largely on the facts that, while going into the possibility of ultra intelligence, we have outrageously converted our environment ,where technologies can replace us without having emotional states, semantic skills ,consciousness and so on. We should make AI environmental friendly. We need the smartest of all technologies so that we can build to tackle the concretes of evils oppressing humanity, from natural crisis to financial crisis, and make world more human friendly.

left449580SINGULARITY
The singularity is the thesis that the discovery of artificial intelligence will abruptly increase technological growth, resulting in irreversible changes to humanrace. It is the future period when technological change will be inevitable and so deep which affects humans.The Singularity will prolong our lives.We are now in the early stages of this transistion.Although the singularity has so many faces,its most important implication is this: Our technology will match and then vastly exceed the refinement of what we regard as the best of human traits. “The ever accelerating progress of technology , the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history race beyond which human affairs as we know them, could not continue” says John von Neumann, 1950.While the technological singularity is seen by most therapist as a sudden event,some scholars argue that we are already changing.

An 2016 article in Trend in Ecology & Evolution argues that :Humans already embrace fusions of biology and technology.We spend most of our times in digitally mediated channels.Artificial intelligence has pierced our lifes in many ways like antilock bracking in cars,autopilot in planes,marriages in America beginning online.Digital algorithms are also a part of human pair bonding and reproduction through artificial insemination and so on. We will soon create intelligences greater than ourselves.When this happens,human history will have reached a kind of singularity, an intellectual transistion as impenetrable as the
knotted spacetime at the center of a black hole,and the world we will far beyond our understanding.It will also cause technological unemployment,and as a result man would be replaced by machines. It has been estimated that at least 5 million jobs will be replaced by artificial intelligence by year 2020.

MY OUTLOOK
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If we define intelligence as the ability to solve problems, then it is clear that artificial intelligence is present, growing and taking the world by storm.There is no obvious barrier on this continuation preventing non biological intelligence from eventually exceeding all human contributions. We don’t know yet.After over 50 years of research in artificial intelligence has been created yet,So its definitely a hard thing to accomplish.

Technological researchers disagree about how likely present day human intelligence is to be surpassed. Some argue that AI will have reasoning abilities that lack human cognitive limits. Superintelligence can infact surpass human intelligence and can further amplified to completely dominate the humans across arbitrary tasks.

I find it safe to say that in the upcoming years , robots are not going to replace the human resource and occupy all the tasks which are being performed by human be on a major scale, which might lead to technological unemployment as said before.The workload in the near future will be handled much more efficiently and precisely with the utilization of an interaction between the human and the robot.

There are other aspects of life which robots cant replicate like feelings ,emotions, sentiments, moods ,teaching, judgements. Such aspects are essentially be considered as the human prerogative. In other words, when it comes to solve a problem, robot lacks flexibility and creative thinking to find a solution and is the major limitation to the application of artificial intelligence. Anyways, Robots might be a boon for our lives, when used to limitation.

So, AI will not fully replace humans.AI may take away some human jobs. For example, robots are already making our cars,vacuuming our floors and serving our food. However, there will always be jobs that only human can do;
Artificial intelligence has its limits.

left434340CONCLUSION
In conclusion , while the utilization of artificial intelligence will surely make life more convenient for mankind in the years to come and ven force human to evolve their skills.Humankind, the creator of machines,will be changing,creating,controlling the use of this technology.The human interaction and human inout will never be made obsolete because of machines.A combination of human and computer workforce is going to make all of the processes more effeicent and time
saving in a work place.

left434340REFERENCES
The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume 3
edited by Paul R. Cohen, Edward A. Feigenbaum
Artificial Intelligence: A Guide to Intelligent Systems
By Michael Negnevitsky
Artificial Intelligence: Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving
By George F. Luger
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: A MODERN APPROACH
by Russell and Stuart J; Norvig and Peter(2003)
Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era
By James Barrat
ROBOTS, HUMANOIDS,AND ARTI?CIAL COMPANIONS
By (chella et al., 2006a)
ARGUMENTATION IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
By TJM bench -capon
SINGULARITY RISING:SURVIVING AND THRIVING IN A SMARTER, RICHER,AND MORE.

By James.D.Miller
THE SINGULARITY IS NEAR
By Ray Kurzweil