Colorful Effect – Hair Dye
Hair dyeing or the so-called hair coloring is the practice of changing the hair color from original or how it is supposed to be to achieve the effect of beautifying or changing the image. It become popular since long time ago, where even the heroes of ancient Greece used harsh soaps and bleaches to lighten and redden their hair to the color that was identified with honor and courage while first-century Romans preferred dark hair, which was made so by a dye concocted from boiled walnuts and leeks. In ancient times, the dyes were obtained from plants. Some of the most well-known are Henna (Lawsonia inermis), Indigo, Cassia obovata, senna, turmeric and amla. In the middle of 19th century, a British chemist William Henry Perkin coincidentally synthesized the first non-natural dye that began with coal tar. At first he hoped to make quinine for malaria, while instead he produced a light purple color. His invention revolutionized the textile industry and gave birth to the petrochemical industry. Soon after, August Hofmann saw that the dyes he produced from coal tar formed color when exposed to air. The responsible molecule is para- phenylenediamine, the basis for permanent hair color now. Hair dyeing is now a multibillion-dollar industry that involves the use of both plant-derived and synthetic dyes. When hair dyes first came out, the main ingredient used in coal-tar dyes caused allergic reactions in some people. Most hair dyes now are made from petroleum sources. But The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) still considers them to be coal-tar dyes. This is because they have some of the same compounds found in these older dyes. Nowadays hair coloring becoming the latest trend with various kinds of types and colors.
There are four types of hair coloring : Permanent, Demi-Permanent (sometimes called deposit only), Semi-Permanent, and Temporary hair coloring. Permanent hair color generally contains mix of Ammonia (NH3) and a developer or oxidizing agent in order to permanently change hair color. Ammonia is used to open the cuticle layer so that the developer and colorants together can penetrate into the cortex while developer, or oxidizing agent itself comes in various volumes. The darker hair color the more it need to achieve lighter shades but it would resulting the greater the amount of sulfur is removed from the hair. Loss of sulfur causes hair to harden and lose weight. Demi-permanent hair color is using an alkaline agent other than Ammonia (e.g. Ethanolamine, Sodium carbonate) with a developer but the concentration of Hydrogen peroxide in that developer may be lower than used in a Permanent hair color. Alkaline agents in Demi-Permanent colors are less effective in removing the natural pigment of hair. They cannot color hair to a lighter shade than it was before dyeing but were less damaging to hair than their Permanent counterpart. The final color is less uniform/homogeneous than a Permanent and therefore more natural looking. They are gentler on hair and therefore safer, especially for damaged hair. Semi-Permanent hair coloring doesn’t contain developer, Hydrogen peroxide or Ammonia so it is less damaging to hair strands. Semi-permanent hair color uses compounds of low molecular weight than those were found in temporary hair color dyes. These dyes penetrate partially to hair strands. While the last type is Temporary hair color, it is available in various forms including rinses, shampoos, gels, sprays, and foams. It is typically brighter and more vibrant than Semi-Permanent or even Permanent hair color. It is most often used to color hair for special occasions such as costume parties and Halloween. The pigments in temporary hair color are high molecular weight and cannot penetrate the cuticle layer. The color particles remain adsorbed (closely adherent) to the surface of the hair shaft and are easily removed with a single shampooing.
There are seven main ingredients of hair dye :
1. Isopropyl alcohol : The chemical used as solvents in the hair dye but may cause dizziness, nausea, and headaches.
2. Propylene glycol : This chemical is widely used in making conditioners and shampoos because it is easy to penetrate the skin. This substance can cause hair loss if used in high levels.
3. Polyethylene glycol ?This chemical are widely used in cleaning products and personal care. This substance can cause premature aging of the skin if used in high levels.
4. SLS (Sodium Laurel Sulfate) ; SLES (Sodium Laureth Sulphate) : Both chemicals are often used in hair care products and are very dangerous for health, which can cause hair loss, reduce the quality of hair and can inhibit hair growth so that the hair is not long, even this substance can cause cataracts if absorbed by the skin.
5. Diethanolamine, Triethanolamine ; Momoethanolamine : These three chemicals are found in shampoos and may trigger cancer cells in the body.
6. Pigment C ; FD colors : Both of these pigment dyestuffs are artificial dyes that can cause various problems in sensitive skin such as irritation and disturbances in the nerves and can reduce oxygen levels in the body. In addition, hair dyes also contain coal tar which is carcinogenic.
7. Formaldehyde : This chemical is widely found in conditioners and shampoos. These chemicals can cause fatigue, allergies, headaches, and reduce the body’s immune system.
While it’s really obvious each of chemical ingredient in hair dye has it’s own negative impact to human’s body, it would be a lie if someone won’t encounter another person with different hair color whenever they walk in the street. In conclusion every hair dye that contain of chemical ingredient is harmful to health. Hair coloring can be done professionally by a hairdresser or independently at home. When coloring one’s hair in semi-permanent way or even temporarily it won’t affect much, but there’s no doubt permanent way in hair coloring even more in high frequency would cause degradation on one’s health. Nowadays three main components in permanent hair dye are 2,5-diaminotoluene, a coupling agent, and an oxidant. Oxidizing agents are usually Hydrogen peroxide, and the Alkaline environment is usually provided by Ammonia. The combination of Hydrogen peroxide and Ammonia causes the natural hair to be lightened, providing a “blank canvas” for the dye. The mechanism of oxidation dyes involves three steps : Oxidation of 2,5-diaminotoluene derivative to the quinone state, reaction of quinonediimine with a coupler compound on the coupler (electrophilic aromatic substitution), and lastly the product from the quinonediimine-coupler reaction oxidizes to the final hair dye. It was once believed that the dye forms in the above reaction bonds to hair permanently. It was later shown that the main reason that this reaction imparts a permanent color on hair by producing larger dye molecules, which is locked inside the hair.
After all, direct contact of chemicals with the skin would be harmful to human’s body. Hair dyes contain heavy metal salts. Once they enter the human body, they are difficult to excrete from the body. After a long period of time, they accumulate in the body, causing poisoning, causing dizziness, headache, fatigue, limb numbness and other poisoning symptoms, and may enter the liver and kidney even the brain, lastly destroying the function of these organs. At first it seems like nothing happened to one’s hair except changing of the hair color and quality, but in the end there are some things that may happen such as :
1. Allergies : From mild to severe. Cases of allergies in hair paints are usually caused by chemicals called p-phenylenediamine (PPD) while more than 70% of outstanding hair products contain PPD, including well-known brands. Some people who are allergic to PPD will have pain around the hairline or on the face as symptom. In addition, the general effect seen is the swelling of the face. The method of testing the safety of hair coatings is to apply a little paint to the ear and leave it for 24 hours. If the skin color changes and causes itching, the chemicals contained in the hair dye are not safe to use.
2. Cancer : Chemical substances contained in hair paints may cause cancer (carcinogenicity). These chemicals can enter the body through the pores of the scalp or be inhaled while breathing. Possible cancers include uterine cancer, brain cancer, leukemia, blood cancer, lymphoma, breast cancer and bladder cancer.
3. Poisoning : Some hair paints contain chemicals called Lead acetate. This ingredient has been approved as a dye in hair dyes, provided that the concentration does not exceed 0.6% b / v. This material can be used safely if you follow the instructions for use. If the concentration exceeds the limit and is inhaled, it may cause poisoning.
4. Hormone disruption : APE chemicals in hair paint may cause hormonal damage in the body.
5. Fetal abnormalities: These dangerous chemicals can enter through the blood, which will be absorbed by the fetus. The chemical that causes cancer is a PPD chemical that is rich in hair pigment ingredients.
If you are expecting to be in a smog environment after dyeing, you should wash your hair frequently and remove the harmful substances adsorbed on the hair in time. It is best to wear a hat when traveling in the haze and take off the coat immediately after entering the house to reduce the harm of the dirty air outside the body. Below are precautions that you should do if you want to dye your hair :
1. Don’t leave the dye on your head any longer than needed.
2. Rinse your scalp thoroughly with water after using a hair dye.
3. Wear gloves when applying hair color.
4. Carefully follow the directions in the hair dye package if you want to dye your hair by yourself.
5. Never mix different hair dye products.
6. Choose Bright Colors. Dark-colored hair paint contains more harmful chemicals than light-colored hair paint, so you should use bright color paint to minimize the negative effects of hair dye.
7. Be sure to do a patch test for allergic reactions before applying the dye to your hair. Almost all hair dye products include instructions for doing a patch test. It’s important to do this test each time you dye your hair. Make sure your hairdresser also does the patch test before dyeing your hair. To test, put a dab of dye behind your ear and don’t wash it off for two days. If you don’t have any signs of allergic reaction, such as itching, burning, or redness at the test spot, you can be somewhat sure that you won’t have a reaction to the dye when it’s applied to your hair. If you do react to the patch test, do the same test with different brands or colors until you find one to which you’re not allergic.
8. Never dye your eyebrows or eyelashes. The FDA bans the use of hair dyes for eyelash and eyebrow tinting or dyeing even in beauty salons. An allergic reaction to dye could cause swelling or increase risk of infection around or in your eyes. This can harm your eyes and even cause blindness. Spilling dye into the eye by accident could also cause permanent damage.
9. Don’t Use Bleaching Techniques. Bleaching hair coloring technique may change the original color of the hair so that hair dye can penetrate strongly on the hair. This technique make the hair color cooler and far from the original color of the hair but it will damage the hair more when accompanied by blow-dry which is really needed to enhance the appearance of the hair.
Another shocking news appear that there’s a new hair dye product, which may change one’s hair color on different temperature. It is repeatedly changes hair color from one to another based on the environment. One of them is black when cold, changing to red when hot, for instance. There’s also a black to white version, silver to powder blue, blue to white, and black to yellow. A semi-permanent fix, it lasts over a few washes, and acts exactly as any other hair dye in terms of not ruining your hair. The dye works using a complex carbon-based molecule, which undergoes a reversible reaction with itself when the temperature is changed. Above a certain temperature, one of the molecule’s forms is more stable than the other, and so a reaction takes place producing a molecule with a slightly different absorption of light, and thus a different colour. However, it is completely toxic to one’s skin, so it would be best to avoid anywhere near the scalp. But these chemicals that would cause irritants can be prevented from causing a negative effect with a process called ‘Polymeric Stabilization’, in which chain-like molecules (polymers) wrap around the irritant.
While it’s already become really clear that chemical hair-dye will damage one’s hair moreover one’s health, there are other alternatives for those who want to change the color of the hair. Same way as how it works on ancient times, we can use plants as tools to dye hair. The main characteristics of plants based hair dye is that they do not harm human’s body while it also has a disadvantages such as the color is single. But indeed, plant hair dyeing has been gradually accepted, and there are more and more institutions that promote them. Chemical dyeing changes the hair’s own structure and the process of corroding the scalp, Ammonia corrosion and damage to hair follicles. Plant hair dyeing is a physical process, nourishing elements attach to the hair and scalp like a film, nourish and care for hair, nourish hair follicles. Like a slice of apple, there will be an oxide film covering the apple. Plant hair dyeing uses a physical oxidation process to attach the nourishing ingredients to the hair and scalp. Below are some options of ingredients for doing plant hair dyeing :
1. Black tea : Soak black tea and make it thick. Apply the black tea solution to the hair and then overnight.
2. Lemon : Prepare a glass of lemon juice and apply all or part of the hair you want to dye. You can wrap your hair in a shower cap, let it rest for an hour, then rinse with water.
3. Turmeric : By crushing turmeric and squeezing a cup of turmeric juice with warm water, place the liquid in the spray bottle and apply it to the hair. Gently massage the hair and let it dry, then rinse it off.
4. Beet fruit : Use beet powder and dissolve it in water, or you can make juice from natural fruits by mixing. You can add paprika or henna powder to maximize coloration. Apply thick beet juice to your hair bit by bit while gently massage your hair. Wrap the hair and allow it to dry, then rinse thoroughly.
5. False Daisy : Apply the oil evenly for one hour and rinse thoroughly.
6. Hibiscus and Rose : Take a handful of Hibiscus petals and a handful of red Rose petals. Mash the petals of both types of flowers together until smooth and then add a little water. Apply to your hair by pouring slowly. Leave the hair closed with a shower cap. The longer you silence the hair the maximum color will be produced.
Nowadays it’s surely unavoidable for wanting to become more good-looking even if some people dye their hair because of job demands. From what listed above it’s not impossible to avoid many risks caused by hair dyeing. Changing the way how someone dye one’s hair should be enough, from chemicals to plant-based. The color produced by plant-based hair dye may not be astonishing as chemical-based hair dye but it would erase all of risks and dangers produced by chemical-based hair dye.
“We become intoxicated with color, with words that speak of color, and with the sun that makes color brighter.” – Andre Derain?