3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Description of the Study Area
3.1.1. Location of the Study Area
Sodo town is the capital city of Wolaita zone. It is found 383 km away from Addis Ababa (via-Shashemene), 328 km (via-Hossaina) and 156 km far from Hawassa, SNNPR’s capital. Five major transport routes connect Sodo with the neighboring zones and regions. These are Shashemene -Alaba (via- Boditi), Addis Ababa -Butajira- Hossaina (via- Areka), Mizan Aman- Bonga- Jima- Taracha- Waka- (via- Bele), Jinka-Arbaminch (via- Tebela) and Goffa Sawula (via-Gesuba). Astronomically, Sodo town is located 6°51’36”N latitude and 37°46’51” E longitude (WZFEMD, 2010).
Sodo town is part of south western high lands. The town is established at the foot of mount Damota, 2,200 meters above sea level and from this mountain, its altitude descends to all directions. The topographic feature of Sodo town contains plain lands, plateaus, gorges, and rugged terrain system. The relief of the town is mainly characterized by gorges and plain lands especially towards southern direction. The highest ; lowest altitude of the town ranges from 1600 – 1900 meters above sea level. Accordingly, the average altitude of the town is 1,800 meters above sea level. The western, eastern, and north eastern parts of the town have undulating topography affecting the flow directions of surface and ground water. The sloppy nature of the town also aggravates erosion of surface soil (SRUPI, 2007).
Sodo town is characterized by a bimodal rainfall distribution pattern with annual rainfall of 1,250mm and short rainy season occurs during the months of March and April and the main rain starts in the middle of June and extends to September. Very high concentration of rainfall is observed in the months of July and August. The mean annual temperature of the town is 20oc (Solomon, 2009).
3.1.4 Socio-economic condition
The socio-economic development of the town is hopeful for the development of the town. The education sector boosted to 52 schools, 1 university, 1 Agricultural College, 1 TVET and 4 Private Colleges in town. Out of the 52 schools, 40 of them have Pre-school/Kindergarten, 31 of them have Primary, 4 of them have Secondary, 5 of them have Secondary ; Preparatory, and 1 of them has preparatory grades. Health institutions in the town include there were 23 health institution giving health services to the town. Looking at the type of health institution, there were 1 General Hospital, 1 Health Center, 4 Medium Clinics, 14 Pharmacies and 1 Drug Store in town and 2 Health Posts from expansion area. The town also has 14 private, 3 governmental banks. Because of its centrality, the town has many formal and informal trade activities. According to a survey conducted by Sodo town trade and industry office, there are 6,100 registered business activities and about 4,000 operators engaged in informal sector. There are 1015 service providing, 1916 retailer, 429 light industries of manufacturing, 253 whole sales, 150 transport sector and 61 urban agriculture business are operating in the town (STA, 2015).
3.2. Research Design
The study was employed descriptive survey research design. The descriptive research design was used because; it is suitable to describe the degree and nature of urban water supply and distribution problems encountered in the study area. According to Hall (1996), using both strategies is due to gradually agreed realization by social scientists to compensate the problems associated with both strategies by the strength of the other. The mixed research approach is useful to capture the best of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thus, the study was employed both quantitative and qualitative research approach of data collection and analysis to keep its validity and reliability.
Quantitative research design is highly structures and produces data that are amenable to statistical analysis. It presents findings in numeral form. Qualitative research design studies about experiences, behaviors and attitudes from the respondents. Thus, for the quantitative method, semi-structured questionnaires were used. Whereas for the qualitative data collection methods such as filed observation and document analysis was used. To this end, the required qualitative data was collected from 12 purposely selected key-informants in depth interview. On the other hand, the quantitative data was gathered from 147 randomly selected survey respondents using random sampling techniques. Moreover, observation were hold in the overall process of field work to substantiate data obtain from other research methods.
3.3. Sources of Data
Both primary and secondary sources of data were used to generate appropriate information for this investigation. Primary data were collected from the study area using questionnaire, organizing interview and conducting field observations. The secondary data were collected from published and unpublished sources viz. publications, reports, academic dissertations, government organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), community based organizations (CBO) and university, etc.