Recently anonymity in location based services has attracted a great deal of attention. This is because of the evolving location detection devices coupled with pervasive connectivity that have supported a many types of location-based services. To access location based services, the users have to disclose their spatial information which threatens their (users) privacy. Therefore, location privacy concepts become mandatory to ensure the user’s acceptance of location-based services. Various solution approaches have been proposed and developed to handle this challenge. However not all attacks have been catered for in the existing approaches. And there is need for privacy protection approaches that consider user habits and preferences.
Because to the fast developments in location technologies for example Global System for Mobile Communication, Radio Frequency Identification and Wireless Fidelity, Global Positioning System, the mobile devices are usually fitted with geolocated and wireless communication abilities. The latest improvements of pervasive devices have led to the creation of a new group of services known as Location Based Services (LBS) that are personalized to the current location of the user sending the query to the service. LBS can be defined as a service that takes as input the current location of a user (generally acquired through a mobile device carried by this user) and tailors its output depending on the acquired location data (Gambs et al., 2013).
LBS can access, combine, and transform contextual information and more specifically location information, in order to personalise the service provided to the user. For example, LBS can be used for resource discovery, path finding, real time social applications or location-based gaming. When people use LBS to support them in their daily tasks, their position is usually acquired automatically through mobile equipment they carry with them, thus these systems continuously monitor and reveal information about the location of their users as the position of these mobile systems is essentially the same as the users of such systems (Gambs et al., 2013).
Users with location-aware mobile devices can issue location-based snapshot or continuous queries to a database server at anytime and anywhere. Examples of snapshot queries include “Where my nearest petrol station is” and “what are the restaurants within one mile of my location”, while examples of continuous queries include “continuously report my nearest police car” and “continuously report the taxis within one Mile of my car”( Mokbel et., al 2006).
Although location-based services promise safety and convenience, they threaten the security and privacy of their customers. Spatial information privacy is the ability to prevent unauthorized entities to access the spatial location information of a user. With untrustworthy servers, an adversary may access sensitive information about an individual based on their issued location-based queries. E.g. an adversary may check a user’s habit and interest by knowing the places he seeks (Chow & Mokbel 2006).
Due to the nature of spatial queries, LBS needs the user position in order to process his requests. LBS makes spatial data available to the users through one or more location servers (LS) that index and answer user queries on them. Examples of spatial queries could be “where is the closest hospital to my current location?” or “Which and where is the nearest Uber taxi and how long will it take it to reach me?” In order for the LS to be able to answer such questions, it needs to know the position of the querying user. There exist many algorithms for efficient spatial query processing, but the main challenge in the LBS industry is of a different nature. In particular, users are reluctant to use LBSs, since revealing their position may link to their identity. Even though a user may create a fake identity to access the service, his location alone may disclose his actual identity. A privacy problem arises in LBS when the user is concerned with the possibility that an attacker may connect the user’s identity with the information contained in the service requests, including location and any other publicly available information such as telephone directories. In general, the association between the real identity of the user issuing an LBS request and the request itself as it reaches the service provider can be considered a privacy threat. User privacy may be threatened because of the sensitive nature of accessed data e.g. inquiring for pharmacies that offer medicines for diseases associated with a social stigma, or asking for nearby addiction recovery groups. Another source of threats comes from less sensitive data e.g. gas station, shops, restaurants, that may reveal the user’s interest and shopping needs, resulting in a flood of unsolicited advertisements through e-coupons and personal messages (Mouratidis & Yiu 2012).
To solve this problem the K-Anonymity concept is adopted, when a user wishes to pose a query, he sends his location to a trusted server the anonymizer (AZ) through a secure connection. The later obfuscates his location, replacing it with an Anonymizing Spatial Region (ASR) that encloses a user. The ASR is then forwarded to the LS. Ignoring where exactly the user is, the LS retrieves (and reports to the AZ) a Candidate Set (CS) that is guaranteed to contain the query results for any possible user location inside the ASR. The AZ receives the CS and reports to user the subset of candidates that corresponds to her original query. In order for the AZ to produce valid ASRs the user send location updates whenever they move through their secure connection. (Mouratidis & Yiu 2012).
The ASR construction at the AZ (i.e., the anonymization process) abides by the user’s privacy requirements. Particularly specified in an anonymity degree K by user, the ASR satisfies two properties that ASR must contain user and at least other k-1 users, and even if the LS knew the exact locations of all users in the system, it would not be able to infer with a probability higher than 1/k who among those included in the ASR is the querying one.
In the ASR LS must produce an inclusive and minimal CS. Inclusiveness demands that CS is a superset of users query results; this property ensures that user receives accurate and complete answers. Minimality, on the other hand, requires that the CS contains the minimum number of data objects, without violating inclusiveness. Minimality ensures that CS transmission (from the LS to the AZ), and its filtering at the AZ do not incur unnecessary communication and processing overheads (Mouratidis ; Yiu 2012).
K-anonymity approach is appropriate for preserving the privacy of the users who request LBS services. The advantage of this approach is that it incurs low communication cost between the client and the anonymizer. However adversary’s knowledge and capabilities, and user needs are not considered which limits the privacy protection. An attacker may use additional knowledge about the user (the habits, regular user behavior, user interests) to infer the query source. This proposal is to formulate an effective and efficient approach to protect privacy of users from such context linked attacks.
1.3 Problem Statement
A context linking attack is where the adversary has prior context information about the user additionally to the spatio-temporal information. The adversary can exploit personal context knowledge like preferences or interest. Assume that each user is interested in certain types of queries, e.g., traffic conditions, restaurants, pubs etc. An attacker may use this additional knowledge to infer the query source. Furthermore the attacker may gather knowledge through observation. For instance, if a user is using pseudonyms and the attacker can see the observed user, then the attacker can retrace all prior locations of the user for the same pseudonym by a single correlation (Wernke et al. 2014). When the user position is revealed, it can reveal his regular habits and routines, and when he deviates from them. Depending upon the information and who learns it, the ramifications could range from annoying to embarrassing to downright dangerous. Robberies, mugging and stalking cases have been linked to attacking of user’s location privacy (Ozer 2011).
Such attacks require a privacy approach that considers user habits, regular user behavior and user interests (Wernke et al. 2014; Shivaprasad, Li ; Zou 2016). Ghinita et al. 2010 proposes that for such an approach, users are classified into groups according to their interests. Then, spatial diversity would take into account these groups when forming Anonymized Spatial Region (ASR); i.e., an ASR should contain users with similar interests, from the same group.
1.4 Major Objective
The overall objective of this research is to develop an approach that enhances user privacy against personal context linking attacks in Location Based Services.
1.5 Specific Objectives
1. Investigate various models and techniques that have been used in protecting privacy in location based services and identify the challenges.
2. Formulate an approach that protects the users from personal context linking attacks and more specifically observation attacks. The approach will extend k-anonymity to consider the user preferences and interests.
3. Evaluate the approach for efficiency and effectiveness or Validating the approach for improved protection
1.6 Research questions
1. What are the challenges in protecting privacy in LBS?
2. What are the existing approaches and techniques that have been used in protecting privacy in location based services?
3. How will the approach be formulated and implemented?
4. How will the approach be evaluated?
The study will examine privacy in location-based services and various techniques and models used in protecting privacy. It will specifically consider the personal context linking attacks. The important features to examine will include k-anonymity concept and formation of ASR with consideration of user preferences.
This research will take a period of five months.
User location privacy is a major concern in today’s mobile applications and there has been significant research dedicated to address this issue (Shivaprasad, Li & Zou 2016). Despite all the efforts made to enhance location privacy of the user sensitive information, issues of context linking attacks there are still open and need more attention .
Currently, only Private Information retrieval (PIR) mechanism can resist observation attack (Shivaprasad, Li & Zou 2016). The drawback of PIR mechanism is the computation and communication overhead, making it hard to implement on handheld/portable devices. Also it is very difficult to service providers such as Google maps, as this will have more real time data.
Unlike PIR, k-anonymity incurs low communication cost between the user and the location-based database server. However, it is unknown if k-anonymity can resist personal context linking attacks. This research is intended to build on Ghinita et al. 2010 proposed solution to this kind of attacks.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Location Based Services
LBS have recently attracted significant attention due to their potential to transform mobile communications and the potential for a range of highly personalized and context-aware services. Since early begging having its origins in E911 project in U.S. in late 1990’s and the first location-tracking functionalities introduced in Japan in 2001 Location-Based Services have made considerable progress. Today new applications of LBS are limited only by the technology and creativity of service developers and it is growing on monthly bases.
2.1.1 The GPS and emergence
2.1.2 Communication Model
2.1.3 LBS Major Components
If the user wants to use a location based service different infrastructure elements are necessary. In Figure
3 the five (4+1) basic components and their connections are shown:
• Mobile Devices: A tool for the user to request the needed information. The results can be given
by speech, using pictures, text and so on. Possible devices are PDA’s, Mobile Phones, Laptops,
… but the device can also be a navigation unit of car or a toll box for road pricing in a truck.
• Communication Network: The second component is the mobile network which transfers the
user data and service request from the mobile terminal to the service provider and then the requested
information back to the user.
• Positioning Component: For the processing of a service usually the user position has to be determined.
The user position can be obtained either by using the mobile communication network
or by using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Further possibilities to determine the position
are WLAN stations, active badges or radio beacons. The latter positioning methods can especially
used for indoor navigation like in a museum. If the position is not determined automatically
it can be also specified manually by the user.
2.1.4 Applications of LBS
2.2 LBS system Model
The most common LBS system model consists of three components namely; mobile user devices, location servers, and clients (Wernke et al. 2014). The mobile device of a user is equipped with an integrated position sensor to determine the current user position. Mobile devices send their position information to a location anonymizer. The location anonymizer is a trusted third party that acts as a middle layer between the mobile user and the location-based database server in order to: (1) receive the user’s exact location along with his/her privacy prole, (2) blur the user’s exact location into a cloaked area, and (3) send the cloaked area to the location-based database server.
The privacy- aware query processor is embedded inside the location-based database server (LS) to tune its functionality to deal with anonymous queries and cloaked areas rather than the exact location information.
Clients query the LS for user positions in order to implement a certain location-based service. The LS grants clients’ access to the stored positions based on an access control mechanism.
Figure 2.1: The centralized model for privacy in LBSs
2.3 Challenges of Location Based Services
Although LBS promise safety and convenience, they threaten the privacy and security of their users. The privacy threat comes from the fact that LBS providers rely mainly on an implicit assumption that the user agrees to reveal his/her private location to get LBS. In other words, the user trades his/her privacy with the service. If the user wants to keep his/her private location information, the user has to turn off the location-aware device and (temporarily) unsubscribe from the service. With potentially untrusted servers, such a service subscription model poses several privacy threats to the user. For example, an employer may check on his/her employee’s behavior by knowing the places where the employee visits and the time of each visit, the personal medical records can be inferred by knowing which clinic a person visits, or someone can track the locations of his/her ex-friends. In many real-life cases, people abuse GPS devices to stalk personal locations, and many people worry about their location privacy when they are using LBS. Unfortunately, the traditional approach of pseudonymity (i.e., using a fake identity) is not applicable to LBS, as the location information of a person can directly lead to the true identity. For example, asking about the nearest Pizza restaurant to the location of my house using a fake identity will reveal my true identity, as a resident of the house. In fact, many web-based tools are available to translate a location into a street address (e.g., Google Maps) and find the resident of a street address (e.g., Intelius).
2.4 Privacy is Location Based Services
Privacy is a human right and should be respected whenever users interact with electronic systems. LBSs are not exceptions. When making use of LBSs, users expose their locations and queries. Both of them can be explored by attackers to infer users’ private information. Such malicious inference in turn threatens users’ privacy in LBSs. First, locations can serve as a piece of subsidiary information to peek users’ personal life. For instance, hospitals are public places and the location of a hospital itself does not carry any sensitive information about users. However, it will become sensitive when the functionality of hospitals and the purpose of people in hospitals are taken into account. An appearance in a cancer centre reveals that a person may suffer from a bad health problem. In order to avoid the abuse of inferred personal information, users desire the protection of location privacy in LBSs. Second, even if where users are located does not reveal any sensitive information, their queries may still put their privacy at risk.
In order to systematically discuss the effectiveness of the different approaches protecting location privacy, we first need to know which information the user actually wants to protect, i.e., his privacy goal. Second, we need to know what kind of information is available to an attacker, in order to analyze how an attacker could use this information to infer private user information with respect to the defined protection goal.
2.4.1 Protection Goals
There are three protection goals which include; user identity, spatial information, and temporal information. The protection goal of the user defines which attributes of the information must be protected and which can be revealed. Each attribute controls the amount of shared information and thus directly affects user location privacy. The adversary can use the attributes as deductive knowledge to minimize user privacy. Location privacy can be achieved by fulfilling some or all of the entities given below.
18.104.22.168 Spatial Information Privacy
Spatial information privacy is the ability to prevent unauthorized entities to access the spatial location information of a user. By choosing the granularity of spatial information, the level of privacy can be varied according to a user’s requirement. For example, the user might be willing to provide coarse location information such as name of the city to a service provider but, might want to share more specific location such as latitude and longitude values with her friends. Another important goal of spatial information privacy is to hide the identity of the user’s location. For instance, knowing that a user entered HIV care center would reveal the user’s private information about her health status. The adversary can deduce that maybe the user is HIV positive.
22.214.171.124 Temporal Information Privacy
Temporal information is related to the point in time when spatial information becomes available. One of privacy preserving methods would be to delay a user’s spatial information so that the time and location of the user cannot be related. The level of privacy can be managed by controlling the temporal resolution of the user’s location. For example, if a user wants to share the location that she has visited but does not reveal that she is not present at her home, the user’s location update can be delayed by a certain amount of time per her requirement. Hence by delaying the user’s location update by “x” amount of time instead of providing real-time update, the user’s private information can be protected. However, (Liu, X et al 2012) found out that even sporadic location information under the pseudonym protection are exposed to location privacy threats.
126.96.36.199 User Identity Privacy
Another important goal of privacy protection is to hide user identity. A user’s identity can be the name, social security number, address, or any such unique information. However, an attacker can still identify a user by correlating the user’s location information and the type of location.
2.4.2 Privacy approaches
Numerous privacy approaches have been proposed to preserve privacy of the user information in LBS. Although the mechanisms such as anonymization and spatial obfuscation provide location privacy through hiding identity or reporting fake locations, they ignore adversary’s knowledge about user’s access pattern and algorithm, and disregard the optimal attack where an attacker may design in an inference attack to reduce his calculation error. Based on the protection goals/attributes and attacker’s knowledge, fundamental principles of the privacy approaches used in LBS are discussed below. The following principles are discussed: position dummies, mix zones, k-anonymity, spatial obfuscation, coordinate transformation, encryption, and position sharing.
188.8.131.52 Mix Zone
One of the mechanisms to protect users’ privacy is mix zone. The main idea of the mix zone mechanism is to define mix zone areas, and user positions are concealed such that their positions are unknown within these mix zone areas. This mechanism uses a trusted location server. A user identity is assorted with many others within the zone by changing pseudonyms whenever the user enters a mix zone. Thus, it protects the user’s identity even when an adversary tries to trace the ingress and egress points of a mix zone and the adversary cannot link these various pseudonyms of the users ((Shivaprasad, Li & Zou 2016)).
The examples that follows as discussed by Beresford & Stajano, 2004 explains this mechanism of preventing attackers from tracking long-term user movements. Consider a scenario of the mix-zone where three users moving through a simple mix zone. The attacker can record the crossing points of the users between the zones and then makes use of the past information from close-by zones to model an attack based on users’ movement, hence providing an attacker a chance in matching entering and exiting users with high reliability. These ingress/egress points and the times of user movement generate a movement matrix. Observing these ingress and egress movements, an attacker can reconstruct correct mapping between all these events (mapping between new and old pseudonyms). This mapping could be related to a bipartite graph that represents possible mapping of ingress and egress pseudonyms. The attacker cannot model an attack with this little knowledge though. He needs to measure the probabilities of these mappings and then finds a perfect match.
Palanisamy and Liu, 2014 propose a mix zone approcah that can be used for road networks. This mechanism considers the different context sensitive information that an adversary may use to obtain complete geometrical trajectory and temporal constraints.
Pfitzmann ; Kohntopp, 2001 define anonymity as “the state of being not identifiable within a set of subjects, the anonymity set”. It was first discussed in relational databases, where published data (e.g., census, medical) should not be linked to specific persons (Panos et al 2007).
k-anonymity is a wide-spread general privacy concept not restricted to location privacy. It provides the guarantee that in a set of k objects (in the author’s case, mobile users) the target object is indistinguishable from the other k – 1 objects. Thus, the probability to identify the target user is 1/k. The idea of this framework is that a user reports to a client a cloaked region containing her position and the positions of k?1 other users instead of her exact position (Gruteser & Grunwald 2003). Due to inherent delay, this approach may not be suitable for services that need quick response.
Wairimu, 2016 proposes a framework protects privacy of a user who moves and continuously sends the rectangular regions containing her location to LS.
The basic concept of k-anonymity has been used by various approaches to increase the efficiency of k-anonymity, for example, clique cloak approach, personalized k-anonymity, historical k-anonymity, and l- diversity.
Personalized k-anonymity model discusses about users having different privacy preferences based on different context and levels of privacy. It presents a few drawbacks in the existing anonymization mechanism such as the mechanism involving users to specify different ks at different times and requiring a large value of k to be successful and also leads to bad quality of service (QoS) in LBS applications.
In the l-diversity mechanism, a user’s location is unidentifiable from a collection of l different locations such as hospitals, restaurants, cinemas, pubs, etc. The l-diversity mechanism promises that the l-users positions are not only different but also they are located far enough from each other. If they do not differentiate this way, an adversary might know the specific victim user location with low imprecision because all the user positions might belong to the same semantic position.
184.108.40.206 Spatial Obfuscation
Spatial obfuscation approach preserves location privacy by reducing the position information precision by sending a circular region to the location server when the user accesses LBS (Ardagna 2007). The advantage of spatial obfuscation approaches is that it provides location privacy without a fully trusted location server (LS). In addition, the user defines only an obfuscation area according to her preference.
However, this advantage comes at the cost that the location service providers are not provided with a precise user location. Hence it decreases the quality of service. Also this approach does not provide user identity privacy, and superiority of information about an individual position is degraded in order to protect that mobile user’s position.
This approach achieves location privacy by misleading an adversary by sending multiple dummy events (false positions) through an event injection method. An essential advantage of this approach is that the user herself can generate dummies without any need for other TTP components. However, it is challenging to create dummies which cannot be distinguished from the true user position, in particular, if an adversary has additional context information such as a map and can track the user for longer times (Wernke et al. 2014).
220.127.116.11 Private Information Retrieval (PIR)
Cryptographic location privacy mechanisms utilise private information retrieval (PIR) to add and enhance location privacy. In a PIR approach, without disclosing/learning any query data, the location server answers a user’s queries when she accesses LBS. The advantage of the PIR mechanism is that a compromised location server cannot disclose any user location information. The disadvantage of the PIR mechanism however is that the location server cannot execute computation on the shares, particularly range queries.
A drawback of PIR mechanism is the computation and communication overhead, making it hard to implement on handheld/portable devices. Also it is very difficult to service providers such as Google maps, as this will have more real time data (Shivaprasad, Li ; Zou 2016).
2.4.3 Background Knowledge Based Attacks
Attacker knowledge can be defined as, an adversary having prior knowledge of the system along with having access to the technologies that enables him to capture the events (Shivaprasad, Li ; Zou 2016). Attacker knowledge is categorised into two dimensions, namely temporal information and context information.
The temporal dimension considers whether the attacker has only access to a single user position or whether he can access historic information. In the first case, the attacker knows only a single snapshot of a user position. This is a common assumption for many privacy approaches. In the second case, the attacker knows a set of multiple position updates collected over time or even a whole movement trajectory. Such information could be revealed, for instance, by a compromised LS or a compromised client. In particular, if an LS got compromised, the attacker might also get historic position information of several users.
In the context dimension the attacker has additional context knowledge beyond spatio-temporal information. For instance, an advanced attacker might have additional context information provided by a phone book, statistical data, a map, etc. The attacker can use this information in addition to the known user positions. Attacks that exploit context information are called the context linking attacks which include; the probability distribution attack, map matching, and the personal context linking attack.
The probability distribution attack is based on gathered traffic statistics and environmental context information. The attacker tries to derive a probability distribution function of the user position over the obfuscation area. If the probability is not uniformly distributed, an attacker can identify areas where the user is located with high probability statistics and environmental context information.
In map matching the obfuscation area is restricted to certain locations where users can be located by removing all the irrelevant areas. For instance, a map could be used to remove areas like lakes from the obfuscation area, which effectively shrinks the obfuscation area size below the intended size. The attacker can also use semantic information provided by the map such as points of interest or type of buildings (bars, hospitals, residential building, etc.) to further restrict the effective obfuscation area size.
18.104.22.168 Personal Context Linking Attacks
This an attack based on personal context knowledge about individual users such as user preferences or interests. For instance, assume it is known that a user visits a pub on a regular basis at a certain point in time and that he uses simple obfuscation mechanism to protect his location privacy. Then, an attacker can increase his known precision of an obtained obfuscated position by decreasing the obfuscation area to locations of pubs within the obfuscation area.
The proposed solution to this problem is to group users into partitions according to their areas of interest (e.g., users who query frequently about restaurants, pubs, or night clubs, etc). Then, when a query is issued, the corresponding ASR is generated with users from the same interest group as the query source, such that each user in the ASR has an equally likely probability of having asked the query.
A special kind of the personal context linking attack is the observation attack, where the attacker has user knowledge gathered through observation. For instance, if a user is using pseudonyms and the attacker can see the observed user, then the attacker can retrace all prior locations of the user for the same pseudonym by a single correlation.
2.5 Legal Privacy Protections
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter provides the methodology the will be used in the research. It includes research method, design, testing techniques, tools for analysis, technology for development, proposed approach and target population.
3.2 Research Design
In this study the researcher will use the descriptive survey design. This is because descriptive survey research study has the dimension of investigating possible relationships between two or more variables. The descriptive survey design is ideal since it is concerned with making accurate assessment of the inference, distribution and relationship of the phenomenon (Edwards ; Gillies 2006). According to (Gay, 1981) descriptive research is a process of collecting data in order to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject in study.
3.3 Target Population and sample
The population of interest in this study will be mobile phone users in Uganda who use location based services applications to search for Point of Interest (POI). The researcher will adopt a simple random sampling technique. Random sampling is a sampling design in which k distinct items are selected from the n items in the population in such a way that every possible combination of k items is equally likely to be the sample selected (Thompson, 2012).
The type of data that will be used in the research study is primary data collected through a questionnaire. According to (Kothari 1984) primary data is original information collected for the first time. To ensure reliability of data collected a pre-test of the questionnaire will be done to determine whether the respondents understand the questions correctly and where the questions do not seem clear enough, the necessary adjustments will be made. The questionnaire will be distributed to mobile phone users and will contain both open ended and close ended questions. Questionnaire is chosen because of its simplicity of administration and high reliability as advocated by (Babbie 1993). The items on the questionnaire will be developed on the basis of the objectives of the study. The collection of the data to the questionnaire will be done through mobile data collection (ODK).
3.5 Reliability and Validity of the instrument
Reliability refers to a measure of the degree to which a research instrument yields consistent results or data after repeated trials. This type of reliability is referred to as Test-Retest. Test and retest simply put, is that you should get the same result on test 1 as you do test 2 when the two tests are administered after a time lapse. Retest involves two administration of the measurement instrument (Yin, 2003). The sample for pre-test should be small hence four mobile phone users will be used for the pre-test of the instrument.
3.6 Development of Proposed Approach
An anonymizer system will be developed using scala (JVM-based). The developed anonymizer that will help cloaking queries will form ASR depending on user preferences or interests. An Android mobile application system will be created with a user interface that will help mobile users to search for POI. The mobile application system will be developed using Android developer.
3.7 System Architecture
3.7.1 Mobile Clients
Mobile devices include mobile phone, PDA, and other devices such as laptops with positioning capabilities. First, each mobile device computes its physical location from the GPS or WiFi component on the device. Mobile users will specify the Point of Interest they desire to search from the user interface of their mobile device in the proposed system. Mobile client will search for Point of Interest, and send a query (search term) to the Anonymizer.
The anonymizer will receive the location of all the mobile clients. The physical location, computed by the mobile device, is sent to the anonymizer server with the query. The anonymizer sends to the LBS an Anonymized Spatial Region (ASR) instead of the actual user location. This procedure is called cloaking. Cloaking hides the actual location by a K-anonymity spatial region (ASR), which is an area that encloses the client that issued the query as well as at least k-1 other users.
The cloaking algorithm that groups users into partitions according to their areas of interest will be developed.
Provides access to location data sources for example the Google places. The LBS receives ASR, ignoring where exactly the user is, the LBS retrieves (and reports to the AZ) a Candidate Set (CS) that is guaranteed to contain the query results for any possible user location inside the ASR. The AZ receives the CS and reports to user the subset of candidates that corresponds to her original query.
3.7.4 Spatio-temporal database
The spatio-temporal database will manage data received from the LBS by supporting corresponding query functionalities. A spatiotemporal data is a kind of data where spatial locations are dynamically updated and/or extents along with time.
Contrary to traditional database systems, a spatiotemporal database must be able to manage the dynamic properties of spatiotemporal objects efficiently. As spatiotemporal objects constantly change, a spatiotemporal database usually receives intensive object updates in a short period of time. To reduce the number of object updates, a sampling-based updating method or a velocity-based updating method is usually adopted. The sampling-based updating method samples the spatial extent/location of a spatiotemporal object either periodically or whenever the spatial difference to the previous sample is greater than a pre-defined threshold. In the velocity-based updating method, a spatiotemporal object reports its location along with the velocity to a spatiotemporal database. The object does not issue a new report unless there is a velocity change. Besides the updating methods, spatiotemporal databases also employ novel access methods to efficiently store and update spatiotemporal objects (Mokbel et al. 2003).
3.8 Experiment and Test
According to (Stenneth.L; Philip S. 2012), success rate is one of the most important evaluation criteria. The main goal of any anonymization server is to maximize the number of messages that can be successfully anonymized with the personalize quality of service and privacy requirement desired. The success rate will be measured as the ratio of the number of successful anonymized request, by the total number of incoming mobile request. A success rate of 100% will imply that all the requests that are sent by the mobile clients are safely anonymized.
3.8.1 Performance measure
According to (Stenneth.L; Philip S. 2012), an algorithm with a lower cloaking time does better, because the cloaking time is a measure of the temporal complexity. Efficient cloaking implies that the algorithm spends less time processing the incoming mobile requests from the mobile clients.
Jmeter software will be used for simulation by sending a given number of http requests to the anonymizer server.
3.9 Conclusion or summary
The chapter includes the methodology that will be used in the research. The researcher will adopt a descriptive survey design. A descriptive survey research study is preferred since it has the dimension of investigating possible relationships between two or more variables. The descriptive survey design is ideal since it is concerned with making accurate assessment of the inference, distribution and relationship of the phenomenon. The approach that will be developed will be included in the anonymizer system which be developed using scala, and a mobile application system which will be developed using android developer. An experiment will be conducted to evaluate the approach for efficiency and effectiveness. The evaluation criteria will be success rate and performance measure.